## Amusing : the general theory of relativity of Einstein this year is 100 years old

The well-known general theory of relativity of Einstein this year is 100 years old, and it still remains fundamental fundamentals of physics and astronomy. Einstein published this theory in 1915, and it formed a cornerstone the basis of understanding of scientists of origin and evolution of the Universe. Still it inspires scientists of the whole world on search of answers to the most curious questions of physics and astronomies which are left without answer.

It - and it became a subject of close attention on one hundred years.

"As all proofs of dark energy use the equations of the general theory of relativity, there is an opinion that the new theory of gravitation will help to explain observations - he adds. - Opportunities include the modified theories of gravitation with additional measurements".

"Why expansion of the Universe accelerates? The most possible option - the cosmological constant (or an equivalent of energy of a vacuum of empty space) moves space acceleration" - Spergel writes. - "Other option - the developing scalar field fills space (like Higgs's field or the field of inflation which quickly expanded the Universe in its early days). Both of these opportunities are united in itself by "dark energy".

Other types of observed data also helped to put the general theory of relativity on a firm basis, tells Blendford.

"It had to move forward. He offered the ideas which he refused subsequently. But continued to move forward - Blendford told Space.com. - It was guided not by the mathematical ideas or mathematical technicians. First of all it was conducted by a physical intuition; this extraordinary powerful physical intuition very well served it in the past".

The general theory of relativity characterizes gravitation not as the congenital force operating on objects, and as a result of a space time curvature. (Imagine how the sphere slides on the inclined surface created by the sphere lying on a soft bed).

The general theory of relativity "now as it seems to me, is assumed as a basis descriptions of the Universe in general, that is for fundamentals of cosmology; it describes black holes, neutron stars, small corrections of orbits of planets and spacecrafts in our own Solar system" - Roger Blendford from Institute of astrophysics of particles and Kavli's cosmology at Stanford University says.

And, at last, scientists try to unite the general theory of relativity with quantum mechanics, to marry very big on very small. This grandiose and the long-awaited "theory of all" still escapes physicists, but they think that it is achievable.

The general theory of relativity expands this last idea, explaining that matter bends space time just as the heavy sphere creates the hollow on a soft surface. This important and monumental understanding of the nature of space came to Einstein not at once; he came to him after ten years of hard and hard mental work.

For example, scientists will use the theory to receive the best understanding of black holes, neutron stars and other celestial bodies and phenomena. Scientists will also continue to probe the nature of dark energy and dark matter, trying to understand the Universe in the widest scales.

The general theory relatively adds gravitation to the special theory of relativity which Einstein published in 1905. The special relativity claims that laws of physics are identical to all motionless observers and that the speed of light in a vacuum does not change even if the observer or a light source is in the movement.

The general theory of relativity will continue to combine efforts of physicists, cosmologists and astronomers still long time in the future, considers Blendford.

The general theory of relativity also assumes that an overwhelming part of the Universe consists of things which people cannot find directly (at the let stage), sometimes even know, David Spergel from Princeton University writes.

"She explains an abnormal precession of a perihelion of Mercury, or rotation of the line connecting the Sun to a point of the greatest rapprochement with the planet - wrote Blendford in article Science. - Einstein used the general theory of relativity to explain a 10 percent divergence in a precession, having connected it with a gravitational attraction of other planets, 43 angular seconds in century".

The special theory of relativity explains the relations between energy and weight with the known equation of E = to mc^2 in which E is energy, m there is a weight, and with - the speed of light in a vacuum (about 1,08 billion kilometers per hour). This theory also unites space and time in four-dimensional space time.

"We checked it many time, the most various ways" - he says. - "I think, it would be fair to tell that there are no convincing measurements or observations which could raise doubts in FROM".

But the constant was a prophecy, today astronomers try to understand the nature of dark energy which quite approaches for its role.

The general theory of relativity foretells that light will choose a curve way, bending around a massive object like a galactic congestion which will significantly influence space time.

Astronomers observed this effect experimentally; moreover, astronomers use "gravitational lenses" for studying of far light sources. Actually, in smaller scales, this phenomenon even helps to look for planets outside the Solar system. (Exoplanets can be found how their native stars bend light from background objects).

Careful studying of the movement of light and matter in the Universe showed that "normal" matter in itself cannot explain regularity of curvature of space time. Really, observations show that only 5% of the Universe consist of the acquaintance to us atomic matter while 25% are the share of dark matter, and 70% - of dark energy.

Dark matter does not radiate and does not absorb light, giving the presence only due to gravitational effects. Dark energy, meanwhile, represents the mysterious force which is associated with empty space and is considered responsible for the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

Features of an orbit of Mercury around the Sun also confirm the general theory of relativity.

In 1917 Einstein entered the term "cosmological constant" into the general theory of relativity as the pushing away force which counteracts gravitation and holds the Universe in a static state (at that time it was the prevailing view of the Universe nature). After Edwin Habl's observations in 1929 showed that our Universe actually extends, Einstein refused a cosmological constant, having considered it "the biggest error" of the life.

"There are many interesting ideas. I will be an optimist and I will hope that my colleagues will be able to carry out it".

Confirmations from all directions

Source: http://avon-on-line24.ru