at the request of chitaty: test, poll, conversation, analysis of products of activity, self-assessment

Published: 21.9.2018
additional methods: test, poll, conversation, analysis of products of activity, self-assessment

As an additional method in a psychological research tests are used.

the Number of positive and negative elections is fixed by

on a matrix then count their percent. By means of a sociometric research it is possible to reveal the real place of the personality in collective with her business qualities, popularity, the interpersonal relations.

By means of a biographical research it is possible to collect the large volume of material that gives the grounds to consider the received answers rather probable. Shortcomings of this method is the subjectivity, accident of answers, complexity of check of their correctness and sincerity.

One of options of a conversation is the interview which is used in psychological and sociological researches. In an interview there are thoughts, opinions, the facts from the respondent's life, i.e. experimental, his relation to political events, situations, the social phenomena, etc.

For the purpose of avoidance of mistakes when using tests as method of a psychological research their contents has to correspond to the studied phenomenon (to cerebration, attention, memory, imagination, etc.) and is not required for performance of special knowledge. Contents of the test and the instruction to its execution have to be the most accurate and clear. Results of a test research cannot be estimated as absolute measures of intellectual opportunities of the personality. They are only indicators of the level of development of certain qualities at the time of the research on specific conditions of life, training and education of the personality.

The sociometric research, or a choice method, apply to clarification of relationship in collective, the estimated relations experimental to others, the bringing of advantage to some members of collective or group before others at choosing the head, friend. The basis for the estimated relation and the choice is the feeling of sympathy or antipathy to others. In psychology the sociometric technique is applied for the purpose of studying of group differentiation when members of the group are suggested to be answered questions of type: "With whom you would like to be on friendly terms?", "Whom you would choose as the head of group?" The choice can be mutually positive, mutually negative or positive or negative from the member of the group and negative (positive) from the one whom he would choose.

The test is a test, test, one of ways of psychological diagnostics of the level of development of mental processes and properties of the person. Psychological tests represent a certain system of tasks which reliability is tested on certain age, professional, social groups and is estimated and standardized by means of special mathematical (correlation, factorial, etc.) the analysis.

Products of activity of pupils are their written works, products, drawings, models, photos, etc. Comparing works, the pupil carries out at different times, at different grade levels, it is possible to reveal the level of its development, perfection of skills, accuracy, skill, ingenuity, persistence, etc. It has to become a subject of the analysis of products of activity, but not, for example, the cost of the made product.

The interview can be not standardized and standardized. In not standardized interview questions of the respondent are formulated not up to the end and can change in the course of the research, and in the standardized look they represent a certain system and are formulated accurately.

A biographical research - one of ways of psychological poll. By means of questioning literary, art, sports, professional interests and preferences, motives, the relation to the choice of actions, acts, kinds of work, in these or those of experiences, their estimates are investigated. On the questions raised in the questionnaire questioned give answers in writing. And questions are raised so that answers to them will be descriptive or alternative: "yes", "no", "I do not know", "I find it difficult to answer", and therefore so that in them several possible answers among which experimental it is offered to emphasize one which corresponds to its private judgments and interests are given in advance. In the questionnaire questions and the stated and motivational character, as in a conversation and an interview are raised. The questionnaire can be nominal when experimental notes the surname and a name, provides some information about itself, and anonymous when which using receive more honest answers.

The conversation is purposeful a conversation with experimental for the purpose of clarification of representation or understanding by it of natural phenomena and society, scientific questions, interdependence, causes and effects, beliefs, ideals, ideological orientation. The questions posed have to be accurate and clear, directed to the psychological phenomena. In a conversation it is necessary to try to obtain not only the stating answers, but also an explanation, motivation, that is answers to questions not only "what is it?", but also "why?", "as?".

The method of the analysis of products of activity is based that in results of work of the person there are his knowledge, skills, abilities, attentiveness and observation, traits of character. Therefore, products of activity give the chance to see in them the most various mental qualities and properties of the personality, level of their development.

Distinguish tests for studying of mental abilities, level of intellectual personal development and tests of progress. With their help it is possible to find out the level of development of separate mental processes, levels of assimilation of knowledge, the general intellectual personal development. Tests as the standardized methods give the chance to compare the levels of development and success experimental to requirements of school programs and professiogramma of various specialties.

In psychology, in particular in student teaching, widely apply poll method when it is necessary to find out the level of understanding experimental tasks, life situations used in training and practical activities of concepts (natural-science, technical, social) or when information on interests, views, feelings, motives of activity and behavior of the personality is necessary. The conversation, an interview, biographical and sociometric researches belong to the most widespread kinds of poll as method of a psychological research.


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